Marmon-Herrington Military Vehicles
• Introduction
All-Wheel Drive Conversion kits:
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In service:
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Marmon-Herrington Tanks

Introduction
Between 1935 and 1942 the Marmon-Herrington Company built various light tank types based on commercial components, for sale to foreign countries and the U.S. armed forces. It is not very well known that a small number was tested and acquired by the U.S. Marine Corps and also exported to various countries.
The first models, known as the CTL (Combat Tank, Light) series, were turretless vehicles mounting machine guns in raised superstructures. In the late 1930s the U.S. Marine Corps funded the development of a number of these turretless light tanks and nicknamed them "Betties" after Rear-Admiral Harold "Betty" Stark, who had authorized their purchase. Read more about the USMC's Marmon-Herringtons in The 'Marine Tank' of 1936 by Kenneth W. Estes.
Early models used leaf-spring suspension and continuous rubber tracks, but in 1938/39 a vertical volute spring suspension and track type similar to those used on the M2/M3 Light Tank were adopted on the CTL-3M. Short pitch Carden-Loyd type steel manganese tracks were adopted in conjunction with this suspension on the CTL-6. In 1940/41 the first turreted design, the CTM-3TBD, was produced to meet a Marine Corps demand; this was a three man tank with two .50 cal MGs in the turret and three .30 cal MGs in the hull front. Like the CTL-3M it also had the rubber block track type (as on M2 and M3 Light and Medium Tanks).
The largest order for commercial tanks came from the Netherlands Purchasing Commission for the Netherlands East Indies Army. The order totalled 628 tanks. Only a handful could be delivered by the time the Netherlands East Indies were overrun by the Japanese in 1941. Some other were delivered to another Dutch colony but the rest was scattered around the world.
The best known tank built by Marmon-Herrington is the M22 Locust. It was used as an airborne tank during WW2. 

Technical Characteristics
Types

CTL-3

[USMC: 1941]
Turretless tank;  prototype fitted with 1 .50 and 2 .30 Cal. MG;  band track. Five built; Five more CTL-3A delivered in 1939 with 10.5 in. track and reinforced suspension. The CTL-3s were rebuilt in 1941 as CTL-3M, fitted with track and suspension components similar to M2A4 Light Tank. 
Equipped 1st tank Company, FMF, later the tank platoons of 1st and 2d Scout Companies. All  discarded in 1943.
 
CTL-3 CTL-3A CTL-3M
Crew two two two
Armament 3 .30 Cal. MG 3 .30 Cal. MG 3 .30 Cal. MG
Engine Lincoln V-12 110 hp. Hercules 6 cyl. 124 hp.
Dimensions
Weight 9,500 lb.  10,900 lb.
Armour inch inch inch
Speed 33 mph
Range 125 miles 
Fording 40 in. 40 in.  40 in. 
Trench crossing 50 in.  50 in.  50 in. 
Vertical step climb 22 in. [only 18 in. in trials] drop 48 in. climb 22 in. [only 18 in. in trials] drop 48 in. climb 22 in. [only 18 in. in trials] drop 48 in.

Note: the CTL-3M modification is believed to have been simply a rebuild to CTL-3A standards, perhaps done only to the first five CTL-3s built. All 9 CTL-3/3A were redesignated CTL-3M. 


CTL-6

Marmon-Herrington CTL-6 (1941)
Turretless tank; improved version of CTL-3, fitted with track and suspension components similar to M2A4 Light Tank. Only 20 built, discarded in 1943 on Samoa. 
Contract cost: $20,837.50
 
Crew two
Armament 3 .30 Cal. MG
Engine Hercules  WXLC-3 6 cyl. 124 hp
Dimensions
Weight 14,775 lb.
Armour 7/16", except for inch engine louvers
Speed 33 mph
Range 125 miles
Fording
Trench crossing
Vertical step


CTLS-4TAC (Light Tank T14)
See a picture with one of a CTLS-4TAC in the foreground and a CTLS-4TAY in the background, in Alaska, summer of 1942

Built for Netherlands Purchasing Commission: 25 are believed to have been delivered to the KNIL in the Dutch East-Indies of which only 7 were confirmed to have been used in action. A shipment of 52 for same was diverted to Australia while another shipload was sunk by the Japanese. 28 CTLS-TAC/-TAYs were sent to Dutch troops in Surinam. Some 240 were delivered to U.S. Ordnance Department: these were used for training and in Alaska.
Reportedly China also ordered a quantity; it is not probable that any of these were delivered.
 
Crew two: driver (on the right) and commander/gunner
Armament one 0.30" Browning MG in a turret (rotating through 240o) offset to the left. Two 0.30" Browning MGs in hull. 
Photos show Dutch examples with only one hull MG.
Engine Hercules 6-cylinder liquid-cooled petrol engine delivering 124 bhp. at 2,200 rpm.
Dimensions 11'6" long, 6'10" wide and 6'11" high (3505.2 x 2082.8 x 2108.2 mm).
8.4 US tons (7,621 kg.). Also stated: 18,816 lb. (8,535 kg.)
Weight 8.4 tons
Armour 12 mm minimum; 25 mm maximum.
Speed 30 mph (48 km/h)
Range 100 km (60 miles)
Fording
Trench crossing
Vertical step


CTLS-4TAY (Light Tank T16)

Identical to CTLS-4TAC except for the fact that it had its turret offset to the right; the driver sat on the left.


CTMS-1TBI: "Dutch Three Man Tank"

Similar to CTLS-4TAC/TAY series, but larger; e.g. wider tracks, bogies have two vertical volute springs instead of one. Built for N.P.C.: delivered to Dutch troops in Surinam. Some to various Latin-American forces via U.S. Ordnance Department (or possibly directly from Marmon-Herrington?).
 
 
Crew three
Armament 20 mm Bofors QF gun (Also stated: 37 mm)
one coaxial and two hull 0.30" Browning MGs
Engine RLXD1, water cooled, 152hp.
Dimensions 13'9.5" long, 7'8" wide and 8'0.5" high (4203.7 x 2336.8 x 2451.1 mm.)
Weight 12.5 US tons (11,340 kg.)
Armour 0.5"
Speed 25 mph cross country
Range
Fording
Trench crossing
Vertical step
 


CTM-3TBD
(Click on image to view full size scan)

Hull identical to CTMS-1TBI, turret almost the same. M2/M3 Light Tank series tracks. Built in 1942 for U.S. Marine Corps.

Turreted version of CTL series tank; with double pin rubber block tracks and vertical volute spring suspension (similar in design to M2A4 track and suspension components). Only 5 built, discarded in 1943 on Samoa.
Contract cost: $29,780

Crew three
Armament  2 .50 Cal. in turret, 3 .30 Cal. MG in front hull
Engine Hercules DRXBS diesel, 123 hp.
Dimensions
Weight 20,800 lb.
Armour increased to 7/16", except for 1/4" engine louvers
Speed 30 mph
Range 125 miles
Fording
Trench crossing
Vertical step

MTLS-1GI4: "Dutch Four Man Tank" or "Virgie"

Hull almost identical to CTMS-1TBI. Built for N.P.C.: delivered to Dutch troops in Surinam. Some to various Latin-American forces via U.S. Ordnance Department (or directly from Marmon-Herrington?).

Crew four
Armament twin 20 mm gun (Also stated: 37 mm)
one MG in an eye-ball mounting on the right-hand side of the turret; two further 0.30" Browning MGs (also stated: up to eight)
Engine Hercules, water cooled
Dimensions 16'1" long, 8'8" wide and 9'2.5" high (4902.2 x 2641.6 x 2806.7 mm.).
Weight 22 (US ?) tons (19,958 kg.)
Armour 0.5" - 1"
Speed 26 mph cross country
Range
Fording
Trench crossing
Vertical step


M22 Light Tank M22 Locust

Crew Four
Armament 37mm M6 & coaxial .30 cal Browning M1919A4
Engine Lycoming 0-435T, 240hp.
Dimensions 12'11" long, 7'3.75" wide and 5'8.5" high.
Weight 17,024 lb
Armour Hull Front 1"; sides & rear, 0.5". Turret 1"
Speed Road: 40 mph; Cross Country 30 mph
Range Road: 135 miles
Fording 3' 6"
Trench crossing 5' 5"
Vertical step 1' 4"


Sources

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